Research On Alternative Diversity Aspects foR Trucks

Welcome to the ROADART Project!

With the investigation of future-oriented diversity and beamforming techniques the resulting ROADART platform will assure a sustainable and holistic approach for corporative ITS systems in a way that state-of-the-art systems cannot provide. The main objectives are:

  • Perform measurements for Truck-to-Truck, Truck-to-Infrastructure mobile radio channel conditions.
  • Perform full statistical characterization of ROADART-specific multi-antenna radio channels.
  • Develop novel radio channel models (both stochastic geometric and ray tracing models) for T2T and T2I channels with support of multiple antenna systems.
  • Investigate multiple antenna diversity techniques in order to provide increased throughput and reliability in T2T/T2I wireless links.
  • Evaluate the use of beamforming for T2T/T2I communications with the proposal of possible new elements to existing vehicular communication standards. Moreover, the use of parasitic antennas will be assessed in order to increase multi-antenna functionalities with minimum interventions on the Truck structure.
  • Introduce spatial modulation as a transmission technique for improved vehicular radio communications. Analyze antenna array aspects for T2T/T2I communication links, including the number of elements, the type of antennas, the introduction of parasitic antennas, antenna placement and mounting on the trucks, as well as antenna structures for the infrastructure especially for special use cases e.g. tunnels.
  • Investigate communication system improvement through cooperative techniques and relays, focusing especially in the T2T relaying for platooning systems and coordinated multi-point T2T/T2I reception.
  • Develop novel localization and detection techniques for conditions where Satellite global navigation systems are not applicable, such as tunnels, using cooperative and adaptive communication techniques as well as sensor measurements and information from infrastructure.
  • All the proposed techniques will be extensively evaluated through simulation using the realistic, measurement-based ROADART channel models.
  • Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, a safety-critical application, will be implemented on a truck, to evaluate the theoretical results and to support the measurements. Herewith, a safety approach for increasing robustness w.r.t. wireless communication impairments on the application layer will be developed and implemented.
  • Based on the results and conclusions, a novel multi-antenna T2T/T2I communication platform will be developed that will achieve optimized and reliable use of the radio channels in order to provide T2T/T2I services in terms of safety, traffic/route control, transportation efficiency and environmental awareness, while taking into account practical issues regarding the installation of complicated communication systems on heavy-duty vehicles.

The developed platform will be demonstrated and evaluated for specific scenarios that include special use cases, i.e. tunnels and platooning.

General Information:
  • Topic: MG-3.5a-2014 "Cooperative ITS for safe, congestion-free and sustainable mobility"
  • Type of action: RIA
  • Project Volume: 3 906 875 EUR
  • Grant Agreement No 636565
  • Duration 36 Month
  • Start 1st May 2015
Partners (Alphabetically) Summary
IMST is an SME with a competence center and professional development house for high frequency circuits, wireless modules, and communications systems. IMST provides individualized support to any customer during every phase of product development, from initial consulting to series production.
MAN Truck & Bus AG
Engineering the Future – since 1758: Focused on key technologies transport and energy the MAN Group (MAN SE) offers innovative products such as trucks, busses, diesel engines, turbomachinery, special gear units and complete power plant solutions. The MAN Group – with its clear distribution of roles, centralizes strategic management activities and strengthens the operational responsibilities of the three subgroups, MAN Truck & Bus, MAN Diesel & Turbo and MAN Latin America – is one of Europe’s leading commercial vehicle, engine and mechanical engineering companies. MAN can look back on a corporate history of more than 250 years.
TNO is the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research and was founded in 1932. TNO is a knowledge organisation for companies, governmental bodies and public organisations. Some 4,500 employees create, develop, and apply scientific knowledge in various domains ranging from industry to society aspects. It is the fundamental goal of TNO to direct its research activities toward creative and practical innovations in the form of new products, services, and processes, fully customized for businesses and governmental institutions.

TNO works on seven research themes. One of these themes is “Mobility”, comprising topics as (intelligent) vehicle technology, ITS, cooperative and automated driving, road side technology, infrastructure technology, intelligent traffic management, environment and human factors in transport.
University of Piraeus Research Center
The University of Piraeus is a prestigious institution in the area of Digital Systems, Technology and Finance. The Department of Digital Systems ( ) is the main driver and contributor to making the UPRC one of the fastest growing institutions in Greece in the national and international research arenas. Specifically, the department covers important areas of the widely and rapidly developing field of Digital Science and Technology. The department’s curricula and research cover the areas of broadband (wireless and optical) networks, digital / network services, as well as the techno-economical management and security of digital systems. In addition, the department consists of over twenty-five (25) faculty members and is very active, both internationally and nationally, in all the aforementioned areas.
©2017 IET. This paper is a postprint of a paper submitted to and accepted for publication in Electronics Letters and is subject to Institution of Engineering and Technology Copyright. The copy of record is available at IET Digital Library.
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A. Roadart Publications in International Scientific Journals

P. S. Bithas, A. G. Kanatas, and D. W. MatolakExploiting Shadowing Stationarity for Antenna Selection in V2V Communications2018to be published in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology

Bithas, P.S., Kanatas, A.G., da Costa, D.B., Upadhyay, P.K. and Dias, U.S.On the Double-Generalized Gamma Statistics and Their Application to the Performance Analysis of V2V Communications2017IEEE Transactions on Communications
Vol. PP(99), pp. 1-1 

Bithas, P.S., Efthymoglou, G. and Kanatas, A.G.V2V Cooperative Relaying Communications Under Interference and Outdated CSI2017IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Vol. PP(99), pp. 1-1 

Efthymoglou, G., Bithas, P. and Kanatas, A.Exact SNR and SIR analysis in Poisson wireless networks2017Electronics Letters
Vol. 53, pp. 356-358(2) 

Peppas, K.P., Bithas, P.S., Efthymoglou, G.P. and Kanatas, A.G.Space Shift Keying Transmission for Intervehicular Communications2016IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Vol. PP(99), pp. 1-6 

Bithas, P., Maliatsos, K. and Kanatas, A.The Bivariate Double Rayleigh Distribution for Multichannel Time-Varying Systems2016IEEE Wireless Communications Letters
Vol. PP(99), pp. 1-1 

B. Roadart Publications in International Scientific Conferences

P. S. Bithas, A. G. Kanatas, and D. W. MatolakShadowing-Based Antenna Selection for V2V Communications20182018 International Symposium on Personla, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), Bologna, 2018

P. S. Bithas, A. G. Kanatas, D. B. d. Costa and P. K. UpadhyayA Low Complexity Communication Technique for Mobile-to-Mobile Communication Systems201814th International Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), Limassol, 2018, pp. 400-405.

Marantis, L., Paraskevopoulos, A., Rongas, D., Kanatas, A., Oikonomopoulos-Zachos, C. and Voell, S.A printed monopole ESPAR antenna for Truck-to-Truck communications20172017 International Workshop on Antenna Technology: Small Antennas, Innovative Structures, and Applications (iWAT), pp. 239-242 

Bithas, P.S., Kanatas, A.G., da Costa, D.B. and Upadhyay, P.K.Transmit antenna selection in vehicle-to-vehicle time-varying fading channels20172017 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 1-6 

Bithas, P.S., Kanatas, A.G., da Costa, D.B., Upadhyay, P.K. and Dias, U.S.The Double-Generalized Gamma Distribution and Its Application to V2V Communications2017GLOBECOM 2017 - 2017 IEEE Global Communications Conference, pp. 1-6 

L. Marantis, K. Maliatsos, C. Oikonomopoulos-Zachos, D. K. Rongas, A. Paraskevopoulos, A. Aspreas, A. KanatasThe pattern selection capability of a printed ESPAR antenna20172017 11th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), Paris, France, 2017, pp. 922-926.

Marantis, L., Maliatsos, K. and Kanatas, A.ESPAR antenna positioning for Truck-to-Truck communication links20162016 10th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), pp. 1-5 

Michailidis, E.T., Maliatsos, K. and Kanatas, A.G.Relay selection in V2V communications based on 3-D geometrical Channel modeling20162016 10th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), pp. 1-5 

Bithas, P.S., Maliatsos, K. and Kanatas, A.G.V2V Communication Systems under Correlated Double-Rayleigh Fading Channels20162016 IEEE 83rd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), pp. 1-5 

Bithas, P.S., Efthymoglou, G.P. and Kanatas, A.G.Intervehicular communication systems under co-channel interference and outdated channel estimates20162016 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 1-6 

Bithas, P.S., Efthymoglou, G.P. and Kanatas, A.G.A cooperative relay selection scheme in V2V communications under interference and outdated CSI20162016 IEEE 27th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), pp. 1-6 

Peppas, K.P., Bithas, P.S., Efthymoglou, G.P. and Kanatas, A.G.Spatial Modulation for V2V and V2I Communications in a Multiple Scattering Environment20162016 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), pp. 1-6 

P. S. Bithas, A. Aspreas and A. G. KanatasA New Reconfigurable Antenna Scheme and its Application to Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications20162017 IEEE International Conference on Communications (WiMob), pp. 1-6 

Michailidis, E.T., Maliatsos, K. and Kanatas, A.G.MIMO V2V Communications Via Multiple Relays: Relay Selection Over Space-Time Correlated Channels2016European Conference on Networks and Communications 


The ROADART project aimed for the development of a reliable, automated system for truck-to-truck (T2T) or truck-to-infrastructure (T2I) communication is safety, since a reliable T2TI/T2I communication platform can be used to warn professional drivers for immediate dangers and to provide crucial information for upcoming road conditions. In addition efficient and safe automated platooning systems drastically cut down GreenHouse Gas (GHG) and other pollutant emissions, while simultaneously they reduce the required transportation costs through fuel savings.

... read more


The novelties incorporated in the ROADART platform cover many areas. First of all is the pattern diversity concept, which was made feasible by implementing special reconfigurable antennas, the so called electronically switched parasitic radiator (ESPAR) antennas. Thus the system is adapted dynamically to its environment. The smart RF section cooperates with smart digital algorithms that run on software defined radios to select the best pattern combination and provide an efficient and reliable solution. Finaly a novel localization algorithm that is based on the input from the truck sensors offers high localization accuracy in environments where there is no navigation system available.

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The Platform

The designed and implemented antenna in the ROADART project is an electronically switched parasitic radiator (ESPARs). It provides pattern reconfigurability, low manufacturing costs, reduced complexity and smaller size. Thus the produced three radiation patterns from a single ESPAR allow for selecting the most suitable pattern configuration for a corresponding scenario. A pair of this antenna is mounted in each side mirror of the truck. Aside the antennas, the ROADART communication platform of each truck consists also of the following parts. First, two RF Modules (one per truck mirror) responsible for reception and transmission of the Truck-2-Truck Packets and part of the signal processing. And second, one communication unit (per truck), which is responsible for further processing and routing of the detected packets sent from the RF modules via Ethernet. Most of the software runs on the communication unit that among others includes the diversity engine, the ITS-G5 stack, the localization engine etc.

... read more

Diversity Engine

In ROADART, a novel Diversity Engine tailored-made for Truck-to-Truck (T2T) and Truck-to-Infrastructure (T2I) Communications was developed. The antenna (or spatial) diversity was used as the base of the diversity engine and additionally, a beampattern selection scheme was implemented with the use of reconfigurable antennas. The beampattern selection scheme was able to produce an omnidirectional pattern for broadcast - multicast transmission/reception as well as a directive pattern that can improve performance for several applications like CACC and platooning. The hybrid spatial-beamspace diversity scheme was implemented with the use of ESPAR Antennas with pattern selection capabilities.

... read more

Dynamic Reconfiguration

An important and complicated objective of the project was the implementation of the Diversity Engine and especially the Dynamic Reconfiguration of the antennas for the ROADART platform in order to track the radio channel fluctuations in the complex T2T communications environment. Three dynamic reconfiguration modes were developed with full reconfiguration in all antennas and with omni support from one RF chain per mirror. The engine monitors continuously the SNR and reconfigures the patterns when it reduces below a threshold while reconfiguration is performed in two stages in order to ensure compatibility with the radio standard.

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Geonetworking Mode

In ROADART, one of the developed and demonstrated diversity operation modes is the Geo-tracking, Geo-networking scheme. According to that, the patterns are selected based on the geometry of vehicles in a given time instance. This information is achieved through the ROADART localization engine, where each vehicle is aware of its position and additionally through the received ITS messages, which reveals the position of the cooperating vehicles. The engine calculates the relative heading angle between the vehicles and each vehicle decides on the combination of patterns that best fits the geometry of the vehicle. In this video, the behavior of the algorithm during an overtake maneuver that took place in the A55 Highway in Germany is presented.

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Localization Technique

A novel localization technique was developed in ROADART attempting to improve positioning performance in challenging conditions like tunnels. The Localization Engine, which is based on an Extended Kalman Filter, is able to operate with variable sampling rates of incoming data from various heterogeneous sources such as the GPS, Truck Sensors as well as positioning information from cooperating vehicles through ITS services. Then, the localization result is distributed to all interested parties with the use of the Data Distribution Service (DDS) protocol. The ROADART engine operated with less than 2m accumulated error for a 2km in-tunnel course during demonstration.

... read more

CACC: Cooperative Adaptive Adaptive Cruise Control

The focus of the time- and safety-critical Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) is to obtain robustness on the application layer against any wireless communication impairments, in particular packet losses and (time-varying) latency, utilizing ROADART communication system characteristics. The development of a model predictive controller (MPC) involves a prediction horizon, which may be used to predict the future output behavior of the leading vehicle. Thus CACC continues its functionality, increases the availability and robustness of the system by sharing look-ahead information and potentially enables shorter inter-vehicle following distances.

... read more

ROADART is attending TRA 2018

Join us at the workshop on “Real time ITS services towards a safer and more efficient road transport”
Place of the workshop: TRA conference venue, room Galerie 5+6.
Date: 17/04/2018, from 9:00 to 12:30

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ROADART is attending EuCAP 2018

ROADART is attending EuCAP 2018 from 8-13 April 2018 and organize the session SW02 on "Multi-antenna concepts and communication techniques in C-ITS systems: From Theory to Application"

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Radio Channel Measurements

The ROADART T2X channel modeling task was based on wideband multidimensional channel measurements at 5.9 GHz ITS frequency band. Three channel measurement campaigns were undertaken; two in Germany and one in Greece.

Measurement Campaign, Peloponnese Greece, 10/2017

The third measurement campaign took place in Panagopoula tunnel, a 3.179 meters long tunnel located in Peloponnese-Greece. The setup of the measurement equipment was designed in a way that one can ... read more
Measurement Campaign, Duesseldorf, 04/2017

The second measurement campaign took place in Kamp-Lintfort, in North Rhine-Westphalia. The measurement equipment setup was designed in order to measure a more generic channel that is free of ... read more
Measurement Campaign, Munich, 10/2016

The first campaign took place in the outskirts of Munich, in the district of Dachau, Bavaria.The measurement setup and the placement of the antenna array on the trucks considered the impact of the truck container and ... read more

ROADART Project Deliverables

DeliverableDeliverable Description Resources

This deliverable describes the requirements for the T2T/T2I-communication regarding antenna design, communication architecture, V2X-Stack for CACC and for the localization. In addition it describes the typical motorway use cases of trucks at the right lane of motorways for testing of the communication system developed in the ROADART project frame.

The purpose of this deliverable is to propose the final qualified communication techniques and antenna arrays to be implemented in the ROADART platform. Therefore, several constraints, coming from other WPs, were taken into consideration for providing the final recommendations.

This deliverable describes the final system architecture of the RF modules and the communication unit, based also on the outcomes of WP1, WP2 and WP3. The hardware for the RF modules placed on the trucks as well as the communication unit, which concists of wireless communication modules and a microprocessor are described.

This deliverable shows the demonstrator of the RF modules and the communication unit, showing the complete setup for one truck.

This deliverable describes the CACC requirements and architecture for the nominal functionality and for a set of safety aspects. The safety aspects which will be taken into account focus on communication impairments in combination with braking of the lead truck.

In this deliverable the test cases and test plans are defined. Based on the description of the use cases and the requirements specifications, resulting scenarios and test cases are defined. In detail the use cases and requirements of the ROADART project will be investigated in order to identify the relevant test coverage for the trials and the evaluation. Furthermore, the technical as well as the regulatory requirements will be taken into account.
D7.2D7.2_Results of the Lab and Field Tests_Final.pdf

In this deliverable the results of the defined lab and field test cases as these were described in D7.1 Definition of Lab and Field Trials will be presented and evaluated.

In this deliverable the activities for the final demonstration of the ROADART project will be briefly described.

This deliverable provides an overview of the different types of data, which are used throughout the project period. Furthermore the methodologies for the data collection and/or generation are also described. Other aspects regarding the managing, storing and curating of the data are also addressed in this document. Finaly, information on metadata standards, data documentation as well as data preservation strategies are provided.

This deliverable contains a dissemination plan of proposed activities and associated tasks with a specific purpose to interact with other parties in the European community that share an interest in the kind of results targeted within the ROADART project.

The proposed activities and associated tasks described in D8.1, were followed continuously throughout the 2nd project period and are described in this deliverable D8.3.

A short overview of the ROADART project in form of a PowerPoint presentation.

In this short deliverable a summary of the consortium activities regarding meetings, telcos, websites, and visit to conferences and consortia will be given.

The ROADART Geometric Stochastic Framework is available for everybody in the following git repository:

This repository contains a current implementation of the Geometric Stochastic Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Truck-to-Truck channel model that was extracted in the context of the Horizon 2020 ROADART project (WP2).

The repository is dynamic and it will continue to update after the conclusion of the project. Long term support is provided by University of Piraeus Research Center (UPRC).

Users should investigate as tutorials roadart_simulator.m and main.m in order to understand the rationale behind the ROADART channel model and as a tutorial on the use of the functional procedures and classes.

Access to measurements is provided through ftp connection (check raw_data.txt in the git)

We strongly encourage researchers to create their own git branches and use, test and evaluate the ROADART channels.

For information, questions, contributions and bugs please contact UPRC - we will be happy to assist you or cooperate.

Contact Person: Konstantinos Maliatsos : kmaliat(-at-)unipi(-dot-)gr or maliatsos(-at-)mobile(-dot-)ntua(-dot-)gr

Dr.-Ing. Christos Oikonomopoulos-ZachosIMST GmbH
Antennas & EM Modelling
Carl-Friedrich-Gauss-Str. 2-4
47475 Kamp-Lintfort
Tel: + 49-(0)2842-981-371
Fax: + 49-(0)2842-981-499
Patrick ErnstMAN Truck & Bus AG
Engineering Central Research
Electronics – Pilot Projects
Dachauer Straße 667
D-80995 München
Tel: +49 172 5385871
Johan van der KampTNO
Integrated Vehicle Safety
Automotive Campus 30,
5708 JZ, Netherlands
Tel: +31-(0)611317156
Fax: -
Prof. Athanasios G. KanatasUniversity of Piraeus
School of Information & Communication Technologies
Department of Digital Systems
80 Karaoli & Dimitriou St,
18534, Piraeus, Greece
Tel: +30 210 414 2759
Fax: + 30 210 414 2714